Sabtu, 13 April 2013

MAKALAH CLAUSE IN READING



  CLAUSE IN READING




NOUN CLAUSE

Noun clause is a dependent clause which function as noun. It may server as the subject, object, complement of on independent clause or sentence. It feels the some slots in the structure as pronouns, nouns or noun phrase.
Noun clause are introduced by certain relaters, such as, when, who, where, why, how, whom, what, which, whose, whoever, whatever, whichever, whether, if, that.

A.    Noun Clause as Subject
Frame Ia. Wh. Word + predicate as noun clause
-          What happened mode the boy cry
-          Whoever heard the dog ran out of his house
-          Who was inside the cave was not know
Frame Ib. Wh. Word + subject + verb as noun clause
-          What the man saw the big stone.
-          Why the dog barked puzzled the man
-          What they found was a dying cat 
Frame Ic. That + subject + predicate as noun clause   
-          That something was wrong was clear
-          That the dog couldn’t help his master made it unhappy

B.     Noun Clause as Object
Fame 2a. Noun clause as direct object
-          Have you decided what you want to get
-          We will bay whatever we need
-          Can you tell me what the are
-          Rini explained (to her friend) that there would be same game during the party



Frame 2b. Noun clause as indirect objects
-          We plan to give whoever wins a present
-          Let ask who understand the game to explants it

C.     Noun Clause as Complements
Frame 3a. Noun clause as predicate complements
-          Books and pens are what we need
-          The question is were we can buy them
-          The problem is that we do not have much money
Frame 3b. Noun clause as object complements
-          The gone made the party what it was
-          The considered the presents what they really needed
 
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

An adjective clause is the some as relative clause. It is a dependent clause with adjectival function. It modifies a noun in the sense that it describes, or gives further information about a noun. That it fills the same slots as adjective. Adjective clause are generally introduced by relaters, such as who, whom, which, oar the, and whose. Who or whom is used to refer to a person, which and that are used to refer a thing, whose is used usually people.

Frame 1a. Wh. Word/that as subject in the adjective clause
-          Do you know the boy who is standing over there
-          I mean the one that is reading a magazine
-          I want to discuss the math problems which are assigned to ns.
-          I’II introduce you to Agus who is the best student in our school.




Frame Ib. wh. Word/that as object as object or complement
-          Isn’t he the best student that we have in our school
-          Do you see the magazine which he is reading
-          I mean the student whom Dudung is talking to
-          I want to return his book which I she wed to you yesterday

ADVERB CLAUSE

An adverb clause is a dependen clause which functions as of time, is fills the same slots as an adverb, name is, the slots of time, please, manner, reason, and purpose. Based on the slots they occupy, adverb clause are of several types:
1.      Place or locational clause 
2.      Time or temporal   clause
3.      Reason clause
4.      Manner clause, purpose clause, and conditional clause

Ø  Time
-     After
-     Before
-     When
-     While
-     As
-     By the time (that)
-     Since
-     Until
-     As soon as
Ø  Cause and effect
-     Because
-     Since
-     Now that
-     As
-     As/so long as
-     In as much as
-     So (that)
-     In uncles the        
Ø  Opposition
-     Even though
-     Although
-     Though
-     Whereas
-     While
Ø Condition
-    If
-    Unless
-    Only if  
-    Whiter or not
-    Even if
-    Providing (that)
-    Provided (that)
-    In case (that)
-    Intheevent (that)    

1.      With Pace Clause
-          Left the book where I fond it
-          He rebuilt the house where his one parents once lived   
2.      With Time Clause
-          He was watching a TV program when I came
-          I was cooking rice in the kitchen while she was watching her favorite TV program  
-          I had left before he come   
3.      With Manner Clause
-          He behaves as if he were a drum karad
-          He loves his mother as his mother loves him
-          She al ways plays with children like her mother does     
4.      With reason clause
-          Because he was sleepy, he went to bed
-          He didn’t go to school yesterday because he was sick.
5.      With Purpose Clause
-          He has tried to improve his English so that he can study at an America college
-          They advertised the concert in order that every one should know about it.  

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